NEW! Survivor Resources from the Institute on Strangulation Prevention

Click Here to connect!

At the Institute, we are dedicated to educating professionals as well as those who have experienced strangulation assaults. Survivors of strangulation assaults experience the ultimate robbery of hope. We know just one strangulation occurrence at the hands of an intimate partners means the victim is 750% more likely to die at the hands of their abuser. At the Institute, we believe Survivors can only make the best decisions for themselves and their families when they have all the information and fully understand the lethality of their situation.    


We have curated a variety of information and resources aimed to help educate Survivors on the severity of strangulation as well as resources aimed to help Survivors create pathways to safety, health, healing and autonomy. 
The Institute would like to thank our Advocacy Advisory Committee, co-chaired by Michelle Morgan and Joyce Bilyeu, for their tireless effort on this project as well as Alliance for Hope International’s Director of Culture and Creative Services, Yesenia Aceves, for her beautiful work in designing and creating our new Survivor Resources web page. 


Please take a moment to visit the new Survivor Page on the Training Institute on Strangulation Prevention’s websiYoYou will be welcomed to the page by Alliance for Hope’s CEO, Gael Strack, and invited to browse a variety of helpful resources.  

Six Milwaukee County women were killed in a two-week period and all were victims of domestic violence

Six Milwaukee County women were killed in a two-week period and all were victims of domestic violence


Ashley Luthern

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Six women were killed in domestic violence situations over the past two weeks in Milwaukee County. Three of them were, from left, Ninoshka Maestre Lozada, Alwiya Mohamed and Ladda Donsanouphith.

In two weeks, six women lost their lives to domestic violence in Milwaukee County.

They were mothers, daughters, sisters and friends.

All were women of color. All died by gunfire.

Cynthia Walker, 66, was killed on her front porch July 8. Prosecutors say her estranged boyfriend pulled the trigger.

O’keyin Riles, 42, and her daughter, La’Dasia Porter, 19, were shot and killed July 14 inside a home near West Ring and North 6th streets. Family members believe La’Dasia was trying to protect her mother during a domestic violence situation. Police say a suspect recently was arrested in Arizona.

Ninoshka Maestre Lozada, 24, was killed in West Allis July 18. Police have arrested a suspect and said they had been in a domestic relationship. Lozada was a mother of four.

Alwiya Mohamed, 20, was killed Tuesday by her husband, who then took his own life at their Milwaukee home. The couple had a 1-year-old son.

Ladda Donsanouphith, 49, was fatally shot Wednesday on the city’s south side in a domestic violence situation. She was a mother to three sons. The suspect later took his life.

And over the weekend, another woman was shot in Milwaukee in a domestic violence incident. Police say the 32-year-old victim has life-threatening injuries.

Relatives and friends have posted tributes to those who lost their lives. Among them was Charnell Riles, sister of O’keyin Riles, who has organized an online donation page for funeral expenses.

The death of her sister and niece came “totally out of left field,” she said in an interview. “No one knew what was going on. There’s a lot we don’t know about the investigation. A wound is still open.”

“They were loved by a lot of people in Milwaukee and family in Mississippi and Louisiana,” Riles added. “There’s been so many people reaching out and donating and sending their condolences and it makes my heart warm to know she made an impact.”

La'Dasia Porter and O'keyin Riles

As their families and communities continue to grieve, those who work with domestic violence survivors say the recent tragedies reflect the ongoing need to reach people with culturally-specific services.

“We’re living through really, really hard times,” said Tammie Xiong, executive director for the Hmong American Women’s Association.

Donsanouphith’s death occurred near West National Avenue and South 35th Street, an area with several Laotian businesses.

“We’re really familiar with that area and so when we heard about this, it was completely devastating,” Xiong said.

‘We understand our communities:’ Culturally-specific options for domestic abuse survivors

The death of Mohamed, a Somali refugee who came to Milwaukee at a young age, has been a “wake-up call” for the local Muslim community, said Janan Najeeb, president of the Milwaukee Muslim Women’s Coalition.

“Based on some conversation with some of the family members, it seemed like he had some jealousy issues,” she said. “But nobody ever thought it would escalate to something like this.”

The coalition has been running Our Peaceful Home, which serves Muslim families experiencing domestic violence, for three years but had struggled to get widespread buy-in with faith leaders and families preferring to keep things private, she said.

That changed last week.

At Mohamed’s funeral, Najeeb and other advocates distributed brochures in Somali and English. This week, community faith leaders will dedicate time in their sermons to the issue of domestic violence.

The efforts show the power of having culturally-specific resources so people do not hit barriers, language or otherwise.

“Each agency has a deep understanding of the community because they come from that particular community and understand the nuances and the specific practices,” Najeeb said.

The Hmong American Women’s Association and Milwaukee Muslim Women’s Coalition are among a half-dozen agencies in the “We Are Here” campaign, designed to bring attention to those resources.

“We understand our communities because we work and live in them,” Xiong said. “All of our services are a direct reflection of what the community needs and wants.

Vaun Mayes, an activist who founded ComForce MKE, said the recent spate of violence shows even more resources are needed.

ComForce members are trained in de-escalation and have intervened in many domestic violence situations, helping people find shelter and other resources. Members also respond to homicides scenes.

It’s critical to have alternatives to the criminal justice system and larger domestic violence agencies because the current system “doesn’t work for everybody,” Mayes said.

He called on state leaders to do more to create community-based interventions in the wake of the recent deaths.

“It just highlights the fact that a lot of people have to suffer domestic violence in silence and without the proper support,” he said.

Supporting the victim’s families

Several victims’ families have set up GoFundMe accounts to help with funeral costs and other expenses. Click on the following links to donate:

Where to find help

  • Our Peaceful Home, which serves Muslim families and is a program of the Milwaukee Muslim Women’s Coalition, operates a crisis line at (414) 727-1090.
  • The Hmong American Women’s Association, which serves the Hmong and southeast Asian community, has advocates available at (414) 930-9352 from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday.
  • The Asha Project, which serves African American women in Milwaukee, provides a crisis line from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. at (414) 252-0075.
  • The UMOS Latina Resource Center in Milwaukee offers bilingual, bicultural, domestic violence, sexual assault and anti-human trafficking supportive services and operates a 24-hour hotline at (414) 389-6510.
  • The Sojourner Family Peace Center in Milwaukee operates a 24-hour confidential hotline at (414) 933-2722.
  • The National Domestic Violence Hotline is 800-799-7233.

Contact Ashley Luthern at Follow her on Twitter at @aluthern.


How Wisconsin’s ‘honor’ system for removing guns from domestic abusers failed Jesi Ewers

How Wisconsin’s ‘honor’ system for removing guns from domestic abusers failed Jesi Ewers

  • Jessica Ewers

Jessica Ewers, a Racine native, was killed three days after Christmas 2020 by her former partner as she was in the process of leaving him.

The attack came without warning and, as far as Jessica “Jesi” Ewers could tell, without provocation.

It was early in the morning of Oct. 19, 2020. Asleep at her home near Cottage Grove, Wisconsin, she woke up to her boyfriend, James “J.T.” Budworth, beating her. He punched her, tried to strangle her, destroyed her cellphone and threatened to kill her and her children. He also bit her, once on the collarbone and once on the arm, where he tore off a chunk of flesh.

Later, Ewers, a Racine native, told police it wasn’t the first time Budworth had attacked her. He drank heavily and abused testosterone and human growth hormones, and threatened to kill her regularly.

Dane County Sheriff’s deputies took him into custody, and when he was released four days later, there were conditions to his bail — he wasn’t supposed to have any contact with Ewers, use drugs or alcohol, or possess “any type of dangerous weapon.” This last point was especially important, because Ewers had told authorities that Budworth kept many guns at the residence they shared.

The conditions of his bail should have kept James Budworth from using those guns. They didn’t. Two months after being released from custody, Budworth used one of them to murder Ewers before taking his own life. Ewers’ five children were left without their mother.


“We need to do better” on domestic violence, said Wisconsin state Rep. Lisa Subeck, D-Madison. “We need to invest directly in both prevention and response through organizations that provide services to DV victims and survivors.”

“No amount of excuses are good enough when somebody’s loved one is killed,” said David Keck, director of the National Domestic Violence and Firearms Resource Center.

Removing guns saves lives

Experts cite a raft of data in favor of removing guns from people accused of domestic abuse. Above all, the presence of guns in an abusive situation meaningfully increases the chances of homicide.

“In homes with domestic violence, and (where) the abuser has a firearm, the victim is five times more likely to be shot and killed by that firearm than in other homes with domestic violence where there’s not a firearm,” said Shannon Barry, executive director of Domestic Abuse Intervention Services in Madison, Wisconsin.

Research has also shown that removing firearms decreases the likelihood of homicide by any means in a relationship, said Sandra Shanahan, program manager of the Regional Domestic Violence Firearms Enforcement Unit in King County, Washington, which has developed the nation’s most proactive system for removing guns from respondents in protection orders.

The heightened risk of recidivism among domestic violence offenders only ratchets up concerns. Domestic violence is associated with a host of other crimes, including violence against non-intimate partners and mass shootings, in addition to high recidivism rates; one study in Washington state found that domestic abuse offenders were more likely to commit additional violent crimes post-conviction than offenders of any other kind.

“Domestic violence offenders are just a special population of offender with very high risks,” Shanahan said. “They’re implicated in so many other types of violent deaths and injuries.”

System easy to skirt

Despite the risks of abusers with guns, Wisconsin’s processes intended to divest abusers of their weapons largely rely on an “honor system,” particularly during the pretrial period — when Budworth murdered Jesi Ewers.

In Wisconsin, authorities can proactively remove an abuser’s guns only in response to a violence protection order against the abuser.

Wisconsin law prohibits respondents in domestic violence protection orders from possessing and purchasing firearms. When a court determines that a protection order meets this standard, respondents must list all the firearms to which they have access. (This did not apply to Budworth, who faced a no-contact order but not a domestic violence protection order.)

The court then orders that the firearms be surrendered with a date, time and a place. In Wisconsin, the county sheriff’s office usually takes possession of them.

“This method requires the respondent to be the person who has the burden of showing that they’re compliant,” said Keck, who created the surrender protocol used in Wisconsin’s domestic violence protection orders.

Finally, the court will hold a hearing to see if the defendant has complied with the order — usually, after two weeks have passed.

Ryan Poe-Gavlinski


“I think there needs to be that follow-up, and that follow-up needs to be much quicker,” said Ryan Poe-Gavlinski, director of the Restraining Order and Survivor Advocacy Clinic (ROSA) at the University of Wisconsin Law School. “In restraining order cases, they do that firearms surrender hearing two weeks out, but why are we not doing them within 48 hours?”

The system, however, largely relies on the respondents’ honesty about their weapons access — hardly a guarantee, experts say.

Moreover, in cases like Jesi Ewers’, Wisconsin has no weapons-surrender protocol.

How the honor system failed Jesi Ewers

In some states, like Colorado, prosecutors can move for a criminal protection order at a bail hearing for domestic violence, which starts a firearm surrender protocol just as an order filed by a victim would. Wisconsin has no such option, according to Keck.

And although Budworth was prohibited from having firearms as a condition of release on bail, no surrender protocols ensure that defendants comply. Defendants can voluntarily arrange to surrender their weapons to the sheriff’s office or a third party.

“If someone is given a bail condition not to possess weapons, that is entered into record, and if the person violates, they would be subject to additional criminal charges,” said Elise Schaffer, spokesperson for the Dane County Sheriff’s Office, which handled the Ewers case. “Basically, all of this is still on the ‘honor’ system, because we do not go in and search a person’s home to clear it of firearms as a matter of ensuring compliance.”Jessica Ewers family

Jessica Ewers, third-from-right, pictured with her family. Ewers was killed three days after Christmas 2020 by her former partner as she was in the process of leaving him.

In other words, although the defendant’s bail would be revoked if the weapons prohibition is violated, there is no mechanism in place to check.

“For a lot of people, the system works the way it should,” said Poe-Gavlinski, but she admitted that problems persist. “The folks who are going to want to try to kill somebody are probably going to find a way to get a weapon no matter what and kill them anyway.”

For Jesi Ewers, the “honor system” appeared to have worked — at least at first. Weeks after his release on bail, James Budworth voluntarily surrendered firearms that had been stored in the house he shared with Ewers, handing them to a third party.

But Budworth didn’t surrender all of his guns — he reported three of them “stolen.” After Budworth murdered Ewers, authorities discovered two of those guns had remained inside the house all along.

Said Ewers-Kubly: “I absolutely think that the ‘honor system’ is inadequate.”

King County, Washington finds a better way

The Regional Domestic Firearms Enforcement Unit (RDFEU) is a multidisciplinary team of law enforcement, advocates and prosecutors in King County, Washington. Established in 2018, it helps implement a state law requiring respondents of certain protection orders to surrender their weapons.

The unit works mostly on domestic violence protection order cases but it also assists in cases in which bail conditions prohibit weapons.

“We handle more than 1,000 cases every year alone just on civil protection orders and compliance reviews,” said Shanahan, whose staff has advised advocates and law enforcement from jurisdictions around the country on firearm surrender protocols.

Their work starts when a court prohibits the respondent of a civil protection order from possessing weapons. Within 24 hours of the order being filed, information on the case is sent to the unit, where advocates screen the petition that led to the order — a victim’s application for protection — to determine whether any firearms involved in the abuse or present in the house need to be recovered.

When they do find evidence of banned firearms, advocates at the unit ask the victim for any information that they can share with law enforcement and prosecutors. Their goal? “To help encourage safe recovery of those firearms at the time of service of the protection order,” Shanahan said.

The unit also works with law enforcement on the logistics of firearm surrender, for example in cases in which the guns are at the victim’s residence and the respondent is prohibited from being there.

The Regional Domestic Firearms Enforcement Unit “activates” when the court issues the order — kickstarting a proactive firearms removal process that does not trust the accused abuser to surrender their firearms on their own initiative.

The unit also collects as much information as possible from the victim about the presence of weapons, rather than relying on the respondent to provide that information.

Petitioners for protection orders in King County can fill out a “firearm identification sheet,” a pictorial of different kinds of firearms. The pictorial also includes questions about the abuse and whether guns are involved. This information is important for safety planning both by the petitioner and law enforcement, and helps law enforcement to ensure all the guns in the respondent’s possession have actually been surrendered.

A victim’s memory of firearms present in the home can be inadequate — meaning “our information about what is known is fairly limited,” said unit member Kim Wyatt, also a senior deputy prosecuting attorney in the King County Prosecutor’s Office.

In bail cases in Washington state, either the victim or an advocate can gather information about firearms, so the court knows which weapons are present when setting the defendant’s conditions of release. For example, the prosecutor can ask that bail remain high until law enforcement has ensured the firearms have been surrendered, Wyatt said.

Another of the unit’s tactics: working with the defendant’s attorney to arrange a weapons surrender.

“These aren’t easy situations,” Wyatt said. “It’s tricky logistically, but our best points of intervention are always up front.”

Apprised of the Ewers case, and told that Budworth had surrendered some but not all of his weapons, Wyatt called such situations “our biggest fear.”

That fear is an ongoing nightmare for Ewers-Kubly. She described her mother as a free-spirited artist who valued people over money. “She had such a contagious energy,” Kubly said, “that the entire universe felt empty when we lost her.”

Enforcement gaps remain

The bail loophole is not the only window of opportunity for abusers prohibited from possessing firearms in Wisconsin to acquire or retain guns. Federal law prohibits people convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence from owning guns, but this law is not in place at the state level in Wisconsin.

Subeck, the Madison state representative, has introduced a bill that would change that. “Our bill would essentially bring our state law into conformity with the federal law, which would then actually enable us to enforce the law,” she said.

Subeck, who also introduced the bill in the last legislative session, said district attorneys have called for this change in the law. As it stands, local prosecutors and police cannot enforce a weapons ban in misdemeanor domestic violence cases without federal law enforcement stepping in.

Subeck is not optimistic that her bill will gain traction in a Republican-led Legislature.

“It’s pressure from the gun lobby,” she said. “There are groups like the NRA, and then there are also versions of it on the more local level here in our state that put immense pressure on Republicans.”

The private sale loophole

When it comes to felons, however, both state and federal law bar people convicted of any felony, including domestic violence, from possessing guns.

The majority of abusers who used illegal guns to kill their victims in 2020 fell into this category — they were prohibited from having firearms because they were already convicted felons, sometimes for domestic violence, data from End Domestic Abuse Wisconsin show.

For example, on April 27, 2020, 43-year-old Christopher Stokes called Milwaukee police and reported that he had just shot and “massacred” his entire family of five. He later pleaded guilty to five counts of first-degree reckless homicide. Stokes was previously convicted of felony domestic violence in 2012 and was prohibited from owning firearms.milwaukee_shooting-scaled.jpg (1200×800).png

A memorial to five people shot to death on April 27, 2020, is seen on North 12th Street in Milwaukee, Wis. Christopher P. Stokes was previously convicted of felony domestic violence in 2012 and was prohibited from owning firearms. Part of the problem, experts say, is that background checks are not required for all gun purchases in Wisconsin, potentially allowing felons like Stokes to acquire firearms despite their history.

Part of the problem, experts say, is that background checks are not required for all gun purchases in Wisconsin, potentially allowing felons like Stokes to acquire firearms despite their history. Licensed firearms dealers catch felony convictions in their screenings, but many guns are purchased in other ways — for example, from private sellers over the internet or at gun shows, where background checks are not required.

“In my mind it makes zero sense that whether you get a background check depends on from whom you purchase your firearm,” Subeck said. “A firearm is every bit as dangerous if it’s purchased from your cousin, your uncle, or neighbor up the street, or some guy on the internet, as it is if you purchase it from a firearm dealer.”

Subeck also noted that protection orders that trigger firearm prohibitions are ineffective if no background check is conducted in a firearm purchase. “Closing that loophole,” she said, “would make the biggest difference.”

Wisconsin Attorney General Josh Kaul has proposed legislation, collectively called Safer Wisconsin, that would plug these holes. But previous efforts to close the so-called “gun show loophole” have failed to pass the Republican-controlled Legislature, despite overwhelming public support for such a measure.

Kaul said requiring universal background checks would “prevent people from evading the background check process.”Licensed_Dealer-1-scaled.jpg (1200×800) (1).png

A tag at Ron Martin’s booth at the Badger Military Collectible Show in Waukesha, Wis., in 2016 identifies him as a licensed gun dealer. Martin runs background checks on any potential purchaser of his guns, but unlicensed and individual sellers in Wisconsin are not required to do so. That allows people prohibited from having firearms — including domestic abusers — to easily obtain them.

The attorney general’s proposal also would address other issues of growing concern to advocates working to stem gun violence in abusive relationships, such as ghost guns, firearms that come fully deconstructed and require assembly. Current laws do not treat such weapons as firearms.

Kaul also said he would like the Legislature to increase the felony classification for repeat straw purchases, gun buys made under a false identity.

“There are a few different mechanisms here to make it more difficult for somebody who’s prohibited” from owning a gun to get one, Kaul said.

Ewers-Kubly favors a “red flag” law that would keep domestic abusers from buying guns — from anyone.

“There are no words to describe how deeply the loss of our mother has impacted our family,” Ewers-Kubly said. “She had such a contagious energy that the entire universe felt empty when we lost her. Your mom is the one you go to for so many things in life, not being able to pick up the phone and call her or drop by is something that we struggle to live with to this day.”

WI Supreme Court Decision on Expansion of Concealed Carry Permits Will Impact Victims of Domestic Violence

WI Supreme Court Decision on Expansion of Concealed Carry Permits Will Impact Victims of Domestic Violence

As reported by the Associated Pressa disorderly conduct conviction can’t disqualify someone from obtaining a permit to carry a concealed weapon in Wisconsin, the state Supreme Court ruled [on May 20th] in a unanimous decision that could dramatically broaden who can carry hidden firearms, knives and stun guns. The court found that disorderly conduct isn’t a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence under federal law and therefore doesn’t disqualify a person from holding a concealed carry license.

Based on clear data and well-understood dynamics of abuse by domestic violence victims, survivors, and advocates, it is beyond a doubt that Wisconsin victims of domestic violence will be violently – and in many cases, lethally – impacted by the Wisconsin Supreme Court’s decision surrounding the expansion of concealed carry permits.

A 2003 study found that a woman is five times more likely to be murdered when her abuser has access to a gun. As is documented in End Abuse’s latest domestic violence homicide report, firearms are the main weapon used in domestic violence homicide in WI, with 52% of 2020 Wisconsin domestic violence homicides involving firearms. In fact, since 2005, firearms killed more people in Wisconsin domestic violence homicides than all other methods combined.

Domestic violence homicide is a crisis in our state. It follows predictable patterns that inform how we must address the crisis in WI. This includes passing common sense firearms legislation that:

  • keeps guns out of the hands of those convicted of certain domestic violence-related misdemeanor offenses,
  • addresses loopholes that give abusers access to deadly weapons by requiring universal background checks (UBCs) on firearms sales, and
  • prioritizes extreme risk protection orders (ERPOs), which allow family and law enforcement to petition to temporarily prevent an individual from possessing a firearm when they are at risk of harming themselves or others.

The Court’s recent decision runs in direct contradiction to what is identified by experts nationally and in our state to keep domestic violence victims and survivors safe. End Abuse continues its ongoing public policy advocacy work to address how existing systems can better serve victims and survivors of violence, and urges legislators to consider the priorities outlined in our most recent legislative agenda as their decisions impact survivors across the state.